Indonesia has abundant biomass resource, particularly the waste biomass such as hull or rice and corncob so that its potential for making it as the renewal energy source is very high. The objective of this final project is to develop and to operate the small-scale biomass gasification unit that can be applied in the household or small-scale industry. Biomasses used in this research are the hull of rice and corncob.
The gasification unit consisted of gasification reaction, ring blower and it is expected to produce the gas producer tested by turning on the burner. The research methods employed include the unit designing, preparation and operation. From the designing and preparation of gasification unit, a double one tool was obtained with outside diameter of 26 cm and inside diameter of 20 cm and 80cm height. The reactor tank is made of iron material, the inside part of it is lined by the fire-resistant brick with the sugarcane drop adhesive with 3 cm thickness, it is also equipped with the 4 termowells, and the bottom of is equipped with the tank containing water as the water seal. The air is flowed by the ring blower ½ hp, and for adjusting the gas flow rate, a tap with 1/8 size was used connected to the manometer U. The reactor output pipe was connected to the burner for the gas producer combustion.
The unit was trialed using the hull of rice biomass with 8-10 mm length, 2-3 mm width, and 0.2 mm thickness and corncob with 1.5 cm length, 0,8 cm width, and 0,5 cm thickness. The capacity of unit when using the hull of rice biomass is 0.75 kg/batch, while using the corncob is 1.5 kg/batch. The unit is operated in Top Lit Up Draft (model 1) and Bottom Lit Up Draft (model 2) manners. From the result of examination, it can be seen that the gas producer has started to be burnt signed by the fire, but the flame has not been constant. Model 2 is easier in the term of start up and the flame of gas producer is more constant, while for model 1, the gas producer is inflammable. The parameters measured in the gasification process included Specific Gasification Rate (SGR), Combustion Gasification Rate (CZR), Fuel Consumption Rate (FCR), Gas Fuel Ration (GFR), the temperature of reactor and gas producer, % Char. The tar formed in this gasification is still substantial. The gasification unit is more suitable for gasifying the corncob, viewed from the start up process that is easier and from the less char produced than the hull of rice gasification. From both model, the tar produced is substantial.