Pragmatism in American Nonviolence as Reflected In William James’ The Moral Equivalent of War
Roosalina Yudoprasetyo - - Fak. Sastra dan Seni Rupa
This undergraduate thesis presents a discussion about pragmatism philosophy of William James in his nonviolent essay, the Moral Equivalent of War. This research aims to give an analysis on why William James’ the Moral Equivalent of War is regarded as a nonviolent essay and to know the idea of William James’ pragmatism in American nonviolent essay as reflected in the Moral Equivalent of War.
The researcher divided source of research into main data and supporting data. The main data of this research is William James’ essay, the Moral Equivalent of War. The supporting data is taken from books, journals, articles, discussions, and internet sites. The supporting data is analyzed to support the main data in providing more information about the history of nonviolence in America, the biography of William James, the sociological situation of William James’ society, the philosophical thought of William James’ society, comments and critics on William James’ the Moral Equivalent of War.
The researcher classified, analyzed, crystallized, and evaluated data in order to give conclusion and recommendation. Since this thesis was written under the discipline of American Study that attempts to analyze the problem through interdisciplinary approach, the researcher employed some approaches that were suitable and related to this research. The approaches used were literary approach, historical approach, and biographical approach.
Analysis leads to conclusion that William James’ the Moral Equivalent of War as an American nonviolent essay tried to channel the contradictory thought between war (violence) and peace (nonviolence). Here James refused to speak about the bestial side of the war regime and considered only the higher aspects of militaristic sentiment although James stated himself as a pacifist. James sought an alternative that would function like a militia but was motivated by threats of an impersonal kind. He proposed the creation of a youth peace army that would conduct warfare against nature. It was a national service that would undertake adventuresome dangerous projects under military-type discipline but doing things like working in coal and iron mines, operating fishing fleets, building roads, and tunnels, and constructing sky-crappers rather than conducting military drills.