This research is based on the reason that there is a close relationship between psychology and the phenomena in the poems. Therefore the research is intended to study the relationship between the psychological phenomena namely the layers of personality that happen in the poems. The study is also intended to find its contribution to character education in teaching reading to students of SMA. To focus the research, three basic problem statements are put forward, they are: 1) What are the causes of conflicts between the id and superego reflected in the poems?, 2) How are the conflicts between the id and superego reflected in the poems?, 3) How are the contributions of conflicts between the id and superego which are reflected in the poems to character education in teaching reading? Grounded on the problem statements, the objectives of the study are: 1) To find the causes of conflicts between the id and superego as reflected in the poems, 2) To find the reflection of conflicts between the id and superego in the poems, 3) To find the contribution of conflicts between the id and superego as reflected in the poems to character education in teaching reading.
This research is a type of descriptive qualitative research which is intended to analyze the clash between the id and the superego in Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening by Robert Frost, as experienced by a horse rider, and in Poor Soul by William Shakespeare, as experienced by a Christian. This study uses psychological approach and takes the psychoanalysis theory from Sigmund Freud. In this theory, there are three layers of personality, namely the id, the ego, and the superego. This theory is used to guide the analysis of conflicts in the poems.
In this research, the researcher only uses sample which is taken purposively. The primary data of this study are taken from the poems based on the theory of the id and the superego. This research does not use the secondary data because this study only uses making conceptual coherence to ascertain the quality of the data. The instrument that is used in this study is the researcher. In this research, the process of analyzing the data uses interactive model proposed by Miles and Huberman.
The research findings consist three results. First, the id and the superego in the poems are represented by the speaker of the poems themselves, which is the horse rider in Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, and the Christian in Poor soul. Second, the conflict between the id and superego in each poem is reflected in one event and in one character. In both of the poems, the superego becomes the winner in the conflicts against the id. Third, there are some values of character which are reflected in the poems, namely discipline, curiosity, friendly/ communicative, and responsibility in Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, while in Poor Soul are religious, friendly/communicative, social care, and responsibility.
The result of the study can be used by English teachers in their teaching literary research concentrating on the psychological phenomenon of poetry, also to instill the character education to the students through psychological phenomenon as reflected in the poems. It can also be used as a reference to other researchers who carry out a study on the psychological aspects of other poems using the same perspective and to other researchers who concern on the character education.