The use of discourse markers by teachers in english classroom (A Case Study in SMA Negeri 3 Surakarta in the Academic Year of 2013/2014)

Oleh :
Yeni Karlina - K2210087 - Fak. KIP

The research is aimed at (1) identifying the the languages used by teachers in
English classroom; (2) finding out the Discourse Markers (DMs) used by teachers in
English classroom; and (3) finding out the functions of DMs used by teachers in
English classroom.
This research uses qualitative case study method. The research was carried out
in April to June 2014 in SMA Negeri 3 Surakarta which is located at Jln. Laksamana
Sukardi R.E.Martadinata 143 Surakarta for the regular program and at Jln. Prof.
W.Z.Yohanes Surakarta for the acceleration program. The sources of the data were
events, informants, and documents. The data were collected through observation,
interviews, and document analysis. The teaching and learning process were recorded
and transcribed. The data were analyzed using interactive model of qualitative data
analysis technique, which includes data reduction, data display, and drawing
conclusion/ verification.
Based on the observation, interviews, and document analysis, it can be
concluded that: (1) both teachers use more than one languages of instruction in
English classroom. T1 uses 75% of English, 20% of Indonesian, and 5% of Javanese
in her talk. T2 exhibits a balanced use of English and Indonesian in English
classrooms with the proportion of 50% - 50%. (2) the DMs used by the teachers in
the classrooms cover DMs in English such as okay, so, filler er and em, well, now,
and, but, because, and then, next, if, by the way, and I mean, DMs in Indonesian such
as oke, jadi, nah, bentar bentar, and tapi and DM in Javanese i.e. sik sik. The
findings suggest that the use of English DMs outnumbers Indonesian and Javanese
DMs with DM okay, so, and then, and er are the most preferable DMs both teachers
use in the teacher talk due to the high multi-functionality in academic discourse (3)
The research findings suggest that the textual functions served by the DMs used by
the teachers in the classroom discourse are as follows: (a) to mark the opening of the
discourse, including claiming the students’ attention (okay, so, oke); (b) to signal
topic switch, including the boundaries of classroom procedures (okay, oke, well, by
the way, now, nah); (c) to mark the closing of the discourse (okay); (d) to keep the
speaking turn (er, em, bentar-bentar, sik-sik); (e) to relinquish the speaking turn
(okay, so); (f) to indicate result or conclusion (so, jadi, nah); (g) to signal contrastive
relation (but, tapi); (h) to mark sequential relations (next, and then); (i) to signal the
continuation &addition (and); (j) to indicate repairs of the speech (I mean); (k) to
show condition relation (if); (l) to show causal relation (because).
The fact that the use of DMs is viewed beneficial to the organization of the
discourse implies that there should be an increased awareness on the use of DMs in
teacher talk for it can help teachers to better-achieve the instructional objectives
though the teacher talk. Teacher education, therefore, should facilitate uptake of
DMs as a significant linguistic feature.
Keywords: Discourse Markers, teacher talk, classroom interaction