Abstrak


Pengaruh Pemberian Jenis Minuman Rehidrasi Ditinjau dari Status Gizi terhadap Penurunan Kadar Gula Darah Atlet Sepak Bola


Oleh :
Rini Wuri Astuti - S531308015 - Pascasarjana

ABSTRAK
Latar Belakang : Ketersediaan glukosa darah dan glikogen selama latihan atau pertandingan merupakan salah satu faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap performa endurance. Status gizi atlet berpengaruh terhadap komposisi tubuh yang memungkinkan penyimpanan glikogen yang berbeda. Pemberian minuman rehidrasi yang tepat selama latihan atau pertandingan dapat membantu meningkatkan performa atlet dengan mempertahankan kadar glukosa darah dan menunda kelelahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh pemberian jenis minuman rehidrasi ditinjau dari status gizi terhadap penurunan kadar gula darah atlet sepak bola.
Metode : Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian quasi experiment pre and post test design menggunakan rancangan penelitian factorial design. Subjek penelitian adalah atlet sepak bola usia 16-19 tahun yang terdaftar di KBIO SMA Negeri Satu Sewon, Kabupaten Bantul, Propinsi Yogyakarta, sebanyak 32 subjek penelitian dipilih menggunakan metode purposive sampling. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan wawancara langsung, pengukuran antropometri, serta pemeriksaan kadar gula darah sebelum dan setelah 45 menit latihan fisik endurance dengan pemberian minuman perlakuan. Data dianalisis dengan uji Anava 2x2 faktorial, nilai signifikansi p<0,05 dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Newman-Keuls.
Hasil : Tidak ada perbedaan pengaruh pemberian jenis minuman rehidrasi selama latihan fisik terhadap penurunan kadar gula darah atlet sepak bola (F0 =2,664 < Ft =4,46). Ada perbedaan hasil penurunan kadar gula darah atlet sepak bola berstatus gizi baik dan overweight (F0 =5,277 > Ft =4,46). Selisih rentang dinyatakan signifikan, bahwa penurunan kadar gula darah lebih besar pada atlet berstatus gizi overweight, dibandingkan dengan atlet berstatus gizi baik. Tidak ada interaksi antara pemberian jenis minuman rehidrasi dengan status gizi terhadap penurunan kadar gula darah atlet sepak bola (F0 =0,526 < Ft =4,46).
Simpulan : Tidak ada perbedaan pengaruh pemberian minuman berkarbohidrat dan sport drink terhadap penurunan kadar gula darah atlet sepak bola usia 16-19 tahun. Atlet sepak bola usia 16-19 tahun yang berstatus gizi overweight lebih besar penurunan kadar gula darahnya selama latihan fisik endurance dan berbeda bermakna dibandingkan dengan atlet berstatus gizi baik. Tidak ada interaksi antara pemberian jenis minuman rehidrasi dengan status gizi terhadap penurunan kadar gula darah atlet sepak bola usia 16-19 tahun.
Kata kunci : Minuman Rehidrasi, Status Gizi, Penurunan Kadar Gula Darah
ABSTRACT
Background: Availability of blood glucose and glycogen during exercise or match is one of the factors that affect the athletes’ endurance. Nutritional status of the athletes affects the body composition which allows different glycogen storage. Provision of proper rehydration drinks during exercise or match can support the athletes’ performance enhancement by maintaining the blood glucose levels and delaying fatigue. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effects of rehydration drinks viewed from the nutritional status toward the decrease of blood glucose levels of football athletes.
Methods: It was a quasi experimental pre and post test design research using factorial design. Subjects of this research were football athletes aged 16-19 years old who were  registered in KBIO Senior High School 1 Sewon, Bantul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. There were 32 research subjects selected by using purposive sampling method. Techniques of data collection were direct interview, anthropometric measurement, and blood glucose levels examination before and after 45 minutes of endurance physical exercise by providing beverage treatment. The data were analyzed by using Anova 2x2 factorial, significance value p <0.05 and followed by Newman-Keuls test.
Results : There was no effect of rehydration drinks provision during physical exercise toward the decrease of blood glucose levels (F0 = 2.664 <Ft = 4.46). There were differences in the result of blood glucose level decrease of the athletes with normal nutritional status and those who were overweight (F0 = 5.277> Ft = 4.46). The gap was considered significant, that the decrease of blood glucose levels of the athletes with overweight nutritional status was higher than those with normal nutritional status. There was no interaction between the provision of rehydration drinks and the nutritional status toward the decrease of football athletes’ blood glucose levels (F0 = 0.526 <Ft = 4.46).
Conclusion : There was no effect of carbohydrated water and sport drink provision toward the decrease of blood glucose levels of 16-19 years old football athletes. The athletes with overweight nutrional status experienced higher blood glucose levels decrease during endurance physical exercise than those with normal nutritional status. There was no interaction between rehydration drinks provision and nutritional status toward the decrease of blood glucose levels of 16-19 years old football athletes.
Keywords : Rehydration Drinks, Nutritional Status, Blood Glucose Levels.