An analysis of tact and approbation maxims based on leech’s politeness principles in the movie “maid in manhattan” (a pragmatics study)
Eka Nurdianingsih - C1304017 - Fak. Sastra dan Seni Rupa
2006. The research is a descriptive research using Pragmatics approach, particularly, the politeness principles. Politeness principles is a series of maxims, which Geoffrey Leech has proposed as a way of explaining how politeness operates in conversational exchanges. The six maxims proposed by Leech are tact, generosity, approbation, modesty, agreement and symphaty maxims. This research took conversations consisting of tact and approbation maxims in the movie “Maid in Manhattan” as the data. The technique of collecting data was based on Purposive Sampling. The research took twenty conversations employing tact and approbation maxims as the data. This research was aimed to (1) describe the tact and approbation maxims employed in the conversations of the movie “ Maid in Manhattan”, (2) clarify the aspects that make the utterances of the participants less or more polite in relation to Leech’s politeness principles. The results of the analysis can be seen as follows: First, the employment of tact and approbation maxims by the participants in the movie “Maid in Manhattan” shows that there are 10 conversations employing tact maxim, 7 conversations employing approbation maxim and 3 conversations employing both of tact and approbation maxims. Tact maxim is related to politeness principles by emphasizing cost and benefit to other. It requires the participants to minimize cost to other and maximize benefit to other. If the utterance uttered by the speaker is more beneficial for the addressee, either financial or prestige, the utterance will be polite. On the other hand, if the utterance uttered by the speaker is damaging to the financial and prestige of the addressee, the utterance will be impolite. Meanwhile, approbation maxim is related to politeness principles by emphasizing praise and dispraise of other. It requires the speaker to minimize dispraise of other and maximize praise of other. If the speaker’s utterance minimizes dispraise and maximizes praise of the addressee, the utterance will be polite. On the other hand, if the speaker’s utterance minimizes praise and maximizes dispraise of the addressee, the utterance will be impolite. Second, there are three aspects that make the utterances of the participants less or more polite in relation to Leech’s politeness principles. The first aspect correlates with the scales of social relationships between the participants including the social status / authority scale and the social distance scale, the second aspect correlates with the degree of language used by the participants in delivering the utterance including the degree of indirectness and the degree of optionality, and the last aspect correlates with the way they are speaking by seeing the context of situation. Based on the results, the differences of social status and distance between the participants influence the participants to deliver an utterance direct or indirectly. If the utterance uttered by the speaker is more indirect, it will be more polite since the utterance is more beneficial for the addressee and less of imposing. The point is that the higher of indirectness indicates the greater of politeness. The way they are speaking also shows their politeness. It can be shown in their intonation, actions, etc. From the findings, the employment of tact and approbation maxims in daily conversations will make the conversations run smoothly. Furthermore, the language users can increase the degree of politeness in delivering an utterance by considering three aspects have been mentioned above. Therefore, a harmonious relationship will be created in the society. And hopefully, people in the society or in a country always employ the politeness principles in their interactions so that the society or a country will be in the atmosphere of relative harmony. Based on the conclusion, it is expected that this research will be useful for future researchers who are interested in studying more about politeness principles. They can analyze it from a different point of view and from other data sources such as drama and novel.