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Prarancangan Pabrik Amonium Klorida Dari Amonia Dan Asam Klorida Kapasitas 100.000 Ton/Tahun
|Penulis Utama||:||Candra Abimanyu|
|Penulis Tambahan||:||1. Refarmita Nur Halimah
|NIM / NIP||:||I 0516010 dan I05160|
|Judul||:||Prarancangan Pabrik Amonium Klorida Dari Amonia Dan Asam Klorida Kapasitas 100.000 Ton/Tahun|
|Imprint||:||Surakarta - Fak. Teknik - 2020|
|Sumber||:||UNS-Fak. Teknik Jur. Teknik Kimia I 0516010 dan I0516010 - 2020|
|Jenis Dokumen||:||Laporan Tugas Akhir (D III)|
Kata kunci: asam klorida, amoniak, amonium klorida, reaksi netralisasi
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Candra Abimanyu, Refarmita Nur Halimah, 2020, Prelimenary Design Ammonium Chloride Plant from Ammonia and Hydrochloric Acid Capacity 100.000 Ton/Year, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta
Ammonium chloride is commonly used as expectorant in cough syrup, source nitrogen in fertilizer, electrolytes in dry battery cells, additives in food industries and electroplating. The purpose of ammonium chloride manufacturing is to provide the domestic needs that are still imported from abroad. The ammonium chloride manufacturer with capacity of 100.000 ton/year is planned to be built in 2021 at Banggai, South Sulawesi. Fulfilling the factory production capacity which reaches 100,000 tons/year of NH4Cl with a level of 99.5% requires materials in the form of a 33% HCl solution as much as 74,512.16 tons/year, 99.5% NH3 as much as 199,898.5 tons/year, and process water as much as 4,839 tons / year and produce HCl waste with levels of 2.5% as much as 71,213.83 tons/year.
There are several processes for producing ammonium chloride, one of them is neutralization reaction. The adventage of neutralization reaction is the process doesn’t produce side products so the purification process can be more efficient. This reaction uses 0.32 kg ammonia/kg product with impurities 99.5% and 2.05 kg hydrochloride acid/kg product with impurities 33% as raw materials with homogeneous reaction (gas phase) that occurs exothermically. The neutralization reaction occurs in plug flow reactor at 130°C and pressure about 1.25 bar. This reaction uses water as cooling agent with conversion of reaction 100% against chloride acid. The product is ammonium chloride wih a purity of 99.5%. The purification involves centrifugation process, washing and drying. The product that has met the specification will be stored in silo storage tank. After that the product will be packed using hopper. The product is packed into 25 kg woven sack. The packed product is sent to some regions in Indonesia, including Donggala and Makassar.
The utility systems of this plant are water supply unit (13.24 kg/kg product), steam supply unit (1.08 kg/kg product), compressed air supply unit (0.002 Nm3/kg product), and electric power supply unit (0.16 kWh / kg product) and fuel supply unit for boiler and gas turbine generator (0.25 kg/kg product). This plant is also supported by laboraturium unit which control the quality of raw materials, product and industrial wastes. The plant will be established with the needs of incoming energy of 1.7 x 109 kJ/hr and outgoing energy of 1.23 x 109 kJ/hr. The energy efficiency is about 70.16%. The heat required for each product is 134.000 kJ/kg product.
The type of company ownership is Limited Liability Company (LLC) with line and staff organizational structure. Employee’s working hours devided into shift and non-shift workers. Non-shift workers work 8 hours a day and 5 days a week without overtime. Shift workers are devided into 4 group with 3 shift times. The number of employees required in this plant is 132 employees with 0.011 man hour/product.
The raw materials are ammonia and hydrochloric acid with the price of US$ 0.6/kg and US$ 0.08/kg. The product is ammonium chloride with the price of US$ 1.3/kg. The economic analysys indicates the return of investment (ROI) before tax is 30.55% and after tax is 24.44%, the pay out time (POT) before tax is 2.47 years and after tax is 2.90, the break-even point (BEP) is 43.57%, the shutdown point (SDP) is 17.72%, the net present value (NVP) is US$ 21.138.466 and the internal rate of return (IRR) is 31.11%. So from this economic point of view this plant is feasible to establish.
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1. Ir. Paryanto, M.S.
2. Dr. Sunu Herwi Pranolo, S.T., M.Sc